While the bloc may experience some changes in tariffs, rules and processes over the next five to fifteen years, the agreement will increase trade competition. In addition, the agreement will help facilitate the entry and exit of goods, the development of skills to meet technical needs, improved transparency and compliance of public procurement, and the incentive for small and medium-sized enterprises to trade, which will diversify the economy. The ratification of the agreement will be a long and winding path for the EU. For the EU executive that negotiated the agreement, the European Commission, it represents a great success for its trade agenda. Texts are published only for informational purposes and may be amended at a later date, including as a result of the legal review process. However, given the growing public interest in the negotiations, the texts are published at this stage of the negotiations for informational purposes. These texts do not prejudge the final outcome of the EU-Mercosur agreement. The increasing use of protectionist measures by national heads of state and government would have encouraged the resumption of talks in 2016. [7] The EU can hope that the agreement is a major break in this global revival of protectionism.

[7] European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker called the agreement the approval of “rules-based trade” at a time of increasing protectionism. [5] Mercosur could hope to use the agreement as a model for future business in the future. [7] Mercosur`s presidents have already stated that they want to conclude trade agreements with Canada and EFTA. [6] Argentine President Mauricio Macri said the agreement with the EU was “not a point of arrival, but a starting point”. [6] This document summarizes the outcome of the negotiations on the trade side of the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement at the time of the agreement in principle on 28 June 2019. The agreement in principle is subject to final transcripts in texts and market access offers. Cattle farming is the main driver of deforestation by Den Assund and has been responsible for up to 80% of deforestation. [14] [18] The current increase in the rate of destruction of tropical forests comes at a time when beef exports from Brazil are at record levels. [14] There are fears that the agreement could lead to even greater deforestation, as it expands access to the Brazilian beef market. [14] EU leaders responded to the criticism by saying that the terms of the agreement are not contrary to the objectives of the Paris climate agreement and that the trade agreement underlines a commitment to “rules-based trade”. [14] However, as Jonathan Watts points out, “there are countless reports of violations of the rules by Brazilian meat companies.” [14] Many experts believe that the environmental provisions contained in the current text of the agreement are “edented” because of the lack of enforcement powers [10] Brazil is a signatory to the Paris climate agreement, but President Bolsonaro criticized it and threatened to remove Brazil from office.

[19] As mentioned above, deforestation of the Amazon has intensified under Bolsonaro. He is accused of weakening Brazil`s ministry of the environment,[10] encouraging the expansion of agriculture and mining in the region[10] and turning a blind eye to illegal destruction. [20] The current Environment Minister, Ricardo Salles, has imposed the lowest number of fines for illegal deforestation in a decade. [21] Following the adoption and publication on 1 July 2019 of the 17-page “agreement in principle,” 29 unfinished texts of the chapters and annexes of the Trade Agreement with the Disclaimer were published in July and September 2019, that they “were published solely for informational purposes and that further amendments may be made , particularly as a result of the legal review process.” The main plans to liberalise goods, services and investment have not yet been released. [35] In the meantime, negotiations continued for the other parts of the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement and ended