A proposal by BNP Paribas Asset Management secured a 53% majority at Chevron – it asked the oil giant to ensure that its climate lobby is in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement. Carbon dioxide, salmon gas and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent heat from spreading from the Earth`s surface into space, causing what is called a greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the main international scientific body dealing with this issue, the concentration of these heat-capturing gases has increased significantly since a pre-industrial period and has risen to a level that has not been reached for at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40% since 1750, salmon gas by 20% and methane by 150%, mainly due to the burning of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions are mainly responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. Meanwhile, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. The Paris Agreement has a “bottom-up” structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals that states must implement. [32] Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets. [33] Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked. Only the processes governing reporting and verification of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly notable for the United States – in the absence of legal targets for reduction or funding, the agreement is considered an “executive agreement and not a treaty”. Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty has received Senate approval, this new agreement does not require further laws of Congress for it to enter into force. [33] The NDC partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to improve cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial assistance they need to achieve large-scale climate and sustainable development goals.

The NDC partnership is led by a steering committee composed of developed, developing and international institutions, and supported by a support unit hosted by the World Resources Institute, headquartered in Washington, DC and Bonn, Germany. . . .